The amyloid beta, or Abeta protein is a peptide of between 39 and 43 amino acids. Abeta antibodies form an important part of Alzheimer's disease research, as the protein is associated with the formation of amyloid plaques. These plaques form while patients are still exhibiting outwardly normal behaviour, making early diagnosis difficult. However, a recent antibody study revealed Abeta 42 as one of three possible biomarkers for early signs of Alzheimer's disease.
The cerebral plaques characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease is mainly composed of Abeta protein. These plaques, which are similar to those seen in Lewy body dementia, consist of tangles of insoluble fibrillar aggregates, known as amyloid fibres. Abeta proteins also form blood vessel aggregates in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. However, they are most commonly associated with progressive Alzheimer's disease.
Abeta peptides are formed by gamma secretase cleavage of the Amyloid precursor protein (APP). Those of interest to Alzheimer’s researchers are beta Amyloid [1-40], [1-42] and [1-43] (Abeta 40, 42 and 43), which are named according to the residue at which cleavage occurs. Of the three proteins, Abeta 42 is the most prevalent form in the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease. However, detection has so far been limited to those already showing signs of dementia.
Recently, researchers at the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Ghent University, succeeded in identifying Abeta 42 as one of three CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) Alzheimer's biomarkers in older adults exhibiting mild or non-existent symptoms of cognitive degeneration. The other proteins were CSF phosphorylated tau181P (P-Tau181P) and total CSF tau protein. Using a variety of symptomatic and non-symptomatic patient groups, as well as post-mortem samples from confirmed terminal sufferers, the researchers were able to demonstrate the efficacy of Abeta 42 as an early Alzheimer's disease biomarker, with the possibility of developing treatments to halt or minimise onset of the disease.
We at Novus Biologicals have a wide range of beta amyloid antibodies and peptides on our antibody database, enabling far more research to take place into this devastating condition.
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